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한국운동영양학회> PAN (Physical activity and nutrition)> Vitamin D in athletes: focus on physical performance and musculoskeletal injuries

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Vitamin D in athletes: focus on physical performance and musculoskeletal injuries

Sewoon Yoon , Ohkyu Kwon , Jooyoung Kim
  • : 한국운동영양학회
  • : PAN (Physical activity and nutrition) 25권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 06월
  • : 20-25(6pages)
PAN (Physical activity and nutrition)

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
VITAMIN D LEVELS IN ATHLETES
VITAMIN D AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE
VITAMIN D AND MUSCULOSKELETAL INJURIES
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF VITAMIN D IN ATHLETES
REFERENCES

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[Purpose] The aim of this review was to discuss the effects of vitamin D on physical performance and musculoskeletal injuries in athletes and provide information on the field applications of vitamin D.
[Methods] A systematic review was conducted to identify studies on vitamin D in athletes that assessed serum vitamin D levels, vitamin D and physical performance, vitamin D and musculoskeletal injuries, and practical guidelines for supplementation of vitamin D.
[Results] Several studies reported that a high proportion of athletes had vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Low serum levels of vitamin D in athletes were more pronounced in winter than in other seasons, and indoor athletes had lower serum vitamin D levels than outdoor athletes. Low vitamin D levels have been demonstrated to have negative effects on muscle strength, power, and endurance; increase stress fractures and other musculoskeletal injuries; and affect acute muscle injuries and inflammation following high-intensity exercises. Therefore, periodic assessment and monitoring of vitamin D levels are necessary in athletes; the recommended serum level of 25(OH)D is > 32 ng/mL and the preferred level is > 40 ng/mL (-1). In those with low levels of vitamin D, exposure to sunlight and an improved diet or supplements may be helpful. Particularly, 2000-6000 IU of supplemental vitamin D3 can be consumed daily.
[Conclusion] Vitamin D is a potential nutritional factor that can significantly affect physical performance and musculoskeletal injuries in athletes. The importance and role of vitamin D in athletes should be emphasized, and the current levels of vitamin D should be assessed. Therefore, it is essential to periodically evaluate and monitor serum vitamin D levels in athletes.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 자연과학분야  > 가정
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • :
  • : 2733-7545
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1997-2021
  • : 733


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1Effects of marine oligomeric polyphenols on body composition and physical ability of elderly individuals with sarcopenia: a pilot study

저자 : Il-Su Kwon , Deuk-Su Park , Hyeon-Cheol Shin , Myung-Gyu Seok , Jae-Keun Oh

발행기관 : 한국운동영양학회 간행물 : PAN (Physical activity and nutrition) 25권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-7 (7 pages)

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[Purpose] We aimed to identify the effects of marine oligomeric polyphenol (MOP) intake in elderly individuals with sarcopenia.
[Methods] Older adults (aged 65 years or older) were recruited based on the diagnostic criterion for sarcopenia and were randomly assigned to the MOP intake group (n=10) or the placebo (PBO) intake group (n=10). To determine the effect of MOP intake received for four weeks, the pre- and post-intake body composition (weight, skeletal muscle mass, and bone density) and senior fitness tests were assessed.
[Results] Our results showed there were significant differences in the skeletal muscle mass (p =0.039), bone density (p =0.020), fat-free mass index (p =0.026), and 2.4 m up and go test (p =0.001) between pretest and post-test. There was a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test and an interaction effect for the one-leg stand test (p =0.010 and p =0.049, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in body fat percentage, calf circumference, grip strength, or the chair rise test.
[Conclusion] Some variables exhibited significant differences in the pre- and post-assessments, and there was an interaction effect for the one-leg stand. However, this was insufficient to prove the effectiveness of MOP intake in improving sarcopenia. Therefore, additional studies are essential to examine the effects of MOP intake and exercise intervention on the body composition and fitness of patients over a longer period.

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2Oligomerized polyphenols in lychee fruit extract supplements may improve high-intensity exercise performance in male athletes: a pilot study

저자 : Aki Kawamura , Shun Hashimoto , Miho Suzuki , Hiromasa Ueno , Masaaki Sugita

발행기관 : 한국운동영양학회 간행물 : PAN (Physical activity and nutrition) 25권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 8-15 (8 pages)

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[Purpose] Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by prolonged high-intensity exercise can cause structural and functional damage. Antioxidant polyphenol supplementation, which reduces ROS levels, may improve high-intensity exercise performance. We evaluated the effect of lychee fruit extract, which contains high levels of low-molecular-weight oligomerized polyphenols, on high-intensity exercise performance.
[Methods] Ten male athletes were included in an open-label trial that consisted of control and intervention phases, with a 7-day washout period between phases. The participants were administered oligomerized lychee fruit extract for seven days, whereas no intervention was given in the control phase. High-intensity intermittent exercise and the Wingate test were performed. The power output, blood lactate levels, reactive oxygen metabolite levels, biological antioxidant potential, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion were measured.
[Results] The average power output was significantly higher in the intervention phase than in the control phase (P < 0.01), while the change in blood lactate levels was significantly lower in the intervention phase than in the control phase (P < 0.05). The average heart rate was significantly higher in the intervention phase than in the control phase (P < 0.05), without changing the rate of perceived exertion. Although there was no difference in reactive oxygen metabolite levels between the phase, the change in biological antioxidant potential was larger in the intervention phase than in the control phase (P = 0.06). The Wingate test showed no significant differences between the phase.
[Conclusion] Short-term loading with oligomerized lychee fruit extract may increase performance during high-intensity intermittent exercise by improving metabolism.

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3Incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia during a high-altitude 161-km ultramarathon

저자 : Morteza Khodaee , Anahita Saeedi , Christine Harris-Spinks , Tamara Hew-Butler

발행기관 : 한국운동영양학회 간행물 : PAN (Physical activity and nutrition) 25권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 16-22 (7 pages)

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[Purpose] Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is a well-known condition among endurance athletes at low altitudes. The incidence of EAH during ultramarathons at high altitudes warrants further investigation. This prospective observational study was conducted on the participants of the Leadville Trail 100 run, a 161- km race held at a high altitude (2,800 m-3,840 m).
[Methods] Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after the race. The participants completed an electronic survey after the race. Our main outcome measure was the post-race serum sodium ([Na+]) level.
[Results] Of the 672 athletes who started the race, 351 (52%) successfully completed the event within the 30- hour cut-off. Post-race blood samples were collected from 84 runners (66 finishers). Both pre- and post-race blood samples were collected from 37 participants. Twenty percent of the post-race participants had EAH. Only one post-race participant had a [Na+] level of <130 mmol/L. All participants with EAH were asymptomatic. One participant had an abnormal pre-race [Na+] level (134 mmol/L). Female participants had a significantly higher rate of EAH than male participants (40% vs. 16%; p=0.039). Age, body mass index, weight changes, race completion status, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and urine specific gravity were not associated with the development of EAH. Lower postrace [Na+] levels were associated with higher serum creatine kinase values (R2=0.1, p<0.005).
[Conclusion] High altitude (3,840 m peak) does not appear to enhance the incidence of EAH after an ultramarathon footrace. This suggests that ambient temperature (low temperatures reduce risk), sex (female predilection), endurance running, and overhydration are more prominent risk factors for EAH than high altitude.

KCI등재

4Efficacy of immune-strengthening functional drinks in top-level athletes: a questionnaire survey-based research

저자 : Minchul Lee , Jin-Sook Lee , Kyunghee Kim , Chanju Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동영양학회 간행물 : PAN (Physical activity and nutrition) 25권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 23-27 (5 pages)

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[Purpose] Functional beverages are intended to support those who want to maintain optimal physical condition and improve their quality of life through the enhancement of heart health, immunity, and digestion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of top-level athletes consuming immune- strengthening conditioning nutritional drinks.
[Methods] A total of 107 top-level athletes (baseball (56 players), pro volleyball (17), athletics (16), cycling (8), golf (6), and fencing (6)) participated in the experiment. They consumed an immune-enhancing functional beverage once a day for 8 weeks and responded to a survey before, during, and after drinking the beverage.
[Results] Three total aspect-based subfactors were drawn from 24 questions in the factor analysis: physical, satisfaction with mental stability, and activity in performance. The physical, mental stability and performance changes of athletes significantly increased in period 2 (4 weeks after intake) and period 3 (after 8 weeks of intake).
[Conclusion] We evaluated the efficacy of a new conditioned beverage containing Lactobacillus B240 and protein in improving the performance and physiological utility of top athletes. This functional drink may gain popularity among those seeking health benefits and improved exercise performance.

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5A network pharmacology approach to explore the potential role of Panax ginseng on exercise performance

저자 : Jisu Kim , Kang Pa Lee , Myoung-ryu Kim , Bom Sahn Kim , Byung Seok Moon , Chul Ho Shin , Suji Baek , Bok Sil Hong

발행기관 : 한국운동영양학회 간행물 : PAN (Physical activity and nutrition) 25권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 28-35 (8 pages)

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[Purpose] As Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (ginseng) exhibits various physiological activities and is associated with exercise, we investigated the potential active components of ginseng and related target genes through network pharmacological analysis. Additionally, we analyzed the association between ginseng-related genes, such as the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and improved exercise capacity.
[Methods] Active compounds in ginseng and the related target genes were searched in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). Gene ontology functional analysis was performed to identify biological processes related to the collected genes, and a compound-target network was visualized using Cytoscape 3.7.2.
[Results] A total of 21 ginseng active compounds were detected, and 110 targets regulated by 17 active substances were identified. We found that the active compound protein was involved in the biological process of adrenergic receptor activity in 80%, G-protein-coupled neurotransmitter in 10%, and leucocyte adhesion to arteries in 10%. Additionally, the biological response centered on adrenergic receptor activity showed a close relationship with G protein through the beta-1 adrenergic receptor gene reactivity.
[Conclusion] According to bioavailability analysis, ginseng comprises 21 active compounds. Furthermore, we investigated the ginseng-stimulated gene activation using ontology analysis. GPCR, a gene upregulated by ginseng, is positively correlated to exercise. Therefore, if a study on this factor is conducted, it will provide useful basic data for improving exercise performance and health.

KCI등재

6Comparative evaluation of obesity-related parameters in junior sumo wrestlers and children with obesity

저자 : Miori Ogawa , Hiroyuki Sagayama , Shinsuke Tamai , Reiko Momma , Daisuke Hoshi , Akiko Uchizawa , Go Ichikawa , Osamu Arisaka , Koichi Watanabe

발행기관 : 한국운동영양학회 간행물 : PAN (Physical activity and nutrition) 25권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 36-43 (8 pages)

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[Purpose] Exercise is a key factor in preventing obesity and metabolic syndrome. Sumo wrestlers increase their body size from childhood for athletic advantage; however, the risk of metabolic syndrome in junior sumo wrestlers is undetermined. Preventive measures against pediatric obesity should be initiated during childhood to prevent obesity in adulthood, considering its high global incidence. We comparatively evaluated the risk factors for metabolic syndrome in junior sumo wrestlers and children with obesity.
[Methods] We enrolled 70 male children (age 9-17 years [sumo group, n = 14] and 9-14 years [other sports and non-exercise groups, n = 28 each]) and evaluated their anthropometric parameters (height, weight, body mass index z-score, obesity rate, waist circumference, waist to height ratio) and hematological parameters (total, low-density, high-density, and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; triglycerides; plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin levels).
[Results] The BMI z-score, obesity rate, waist circumference (p < 0.05, along with the non-exercise group), and systolic blood pressure were significantly higher and the high-density cholesterol level was lower in the sumo group than in the other sports group (p < 0.05). The waist to height ratio was significantly higher in the non-exercise group than in the other sports group (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in other blood lipid, plasma glucose (significantly lower level than the reference range in the sumo group, p < 0.05), and glycated hemoglobin (within the reference range in all groups) levels among the three groups.
[Conclusion] Junior sumo wrestlers had a larger body size and higher blood pressure than children with obesity who exercised regularly. This provides direction for future research into targeted preventive interventions against metabolic syndrome for junior sumo wrestlers with large body size.

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1Interplays between human microbiota and microRNAs in COVID-19 pathogenesis: a literature review

저자 : Bok Sil Hong , Myoung-ryu Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동영양학회 간행물 : PAN (Physical activity and nutrition) 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-7 (7 pages)

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[Purpose] Recent studies have shown that COVID-19 is often associated with altered gut microbiota composition and reflects disease severity. Furthermore, various reports suggest that the interaction between COVID-19 and host-microbiota homeostasis is mediated through the modulation of microRNAs (miRNAs). Thus, in this review, we aim to summarize the association between human microbiota and miRNAs in COVID-19 pathogenesis.
[Methods] We searched for the existing literature using the keywords such “COVID-19 or microbiota,” “microbiota or microRNA,” and “COVID-19 or probiotics” in PubMed until March 31, 2021. Subsequently, we thoroughly reviewed the articles related to microbiota and miRNAs in COVID-19 to generate a comprehensive picture depicting the association between human microbiota and microRNAs in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.
[Results] There exists strong experimental evidence suggesting that the composition and diversity of human microbiota are altered in COVID-19 patients, implicating a bidirectional association between the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 encoded miRNAs and host cellular microRNAs modulated by human microbiota can interfere with viral replication and regulate host gene expression involved in the initiation and progression of COVID-19. These findings suggest that the manipulation of human microbiota with probiotics may play a significant role against SARS-CoV-2 infection by enhancing the host immune system and lowering the inflammatory status.
[Conclusion] The human microbiota-miRNA axis can be used as a therapeutic approach for COVID-19. Hence, further studies are needed to investigate the exact molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of miRNA expression in human microbiota and how these miRNA profiles mediate viral infection through host-microbe interactions.

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2Consumption of a high-fat-high-sucrose diet partly diminishes mechanical and structural adaptations of cardiac muscle following resistance training

저자 : Kevin Boldt , Stela Mattiello , Venus Joumaa , Jeannine Turnbull , Paul W. M. Fedak , Walter Herzog

발행기관 : 한국운동영양학회 간행물 : PAN (Physical activity and nutrition) 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 8-14 (7 pages)

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[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet on previously reported adaptations of cardiac morphological and contractile properties to resistance training.
[Methods] Twelve-week-old rats participated in 12-weeks of resistance exercise training and consumed an HFHS diet. Echocardiography and skinned cardiac muscle fiber bundle testing were performed to determine the structural and mechanical adaptations.
[Results] Compared to chow-fed sedentary animals, both HFHS- and chow-fed resistance-trained animals had thicker left ventricular walls. Isolated trabecular fiber bundles from chow-fed resistance-trained animals had greater force output, shortening velocities, and calcium sensitivities than those of chow-fed sedentary controls. However, trabeculae from the HFHS resistance-trained animals had greater force output but no change in unloaded shortening velocity or calcium sensitivity than those of the chow-fed sedentary group animals.
[Conclusion] Resistance exercise training led to positive structural and mechanical adaptations of the heart, which were partly offset by the HFHS diet.

KCI등재

3Effect of ginger extract ingestion on skeletal muscle glycogen contents and endurance exercise in male rats

저자 : Satoshi Hattori , Naomi Omi , Zhou Yang , Moeka Nakamura , Masahiro Ikemoto

발행기관 : 한국운동영양학회 간행물 : PAN (Physical activity and nutrition) 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 15-19 (5 pages)

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[Purpose] Skeletal muscle glycogen is a determinant of endurance capacity for some athletes. Ginger is well known to possess nutritional effects, such as anti-diabetic effects. We hypothesized that ginger extract (GE) ingestion increases skeletal muscle glycogen by enhancing fat oxidation. Thus, we investigated the effect of GE ingestion on exercise capacity, skeletal muscle glycogen, and certain blood metabolites in exercised rats.
[Methods] First, we evaluated the influence of GE ingestion on body weight and elevation of exercise performance in rats fed with different volumes of GE. Next, we measured the skeletal muscle glycogen content and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in GE-fed rats. Finally, we demonstrated that GE ingestion contributes to endurance capacity during intermittent exercise to exhaustion.
[Results] We confirmed that GE ingestion increased exercise performance (p<0.05) and elevated the skeletal muscle glycogen content compared to the non- GE-fed (CE, control exercise) group before exercise (Soleus: p<0.01, Plantaris: p<0.01, Gastrocnemius: p<0.05). Blood FFA levels in the GE group were significantly higher than those in the CE group after exercise (p<0.05). Moreover, we demonstrated that exercise capacity was maintained in the CE group during intermittent exercise (p<0.05).
[Conclusion] These findings indicate that GE ingestion increases skeletal muscle glycogen content and exercise performance through the upregulation of fat oxidation.

KCI등재

4Vitamin D in athletes: focus on physical performance and musculoskeletal injuries

저자 : Sewoon Yoon , Ohkyu Kwon , Jooyoung Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동영양학회 간행물 : PAN (Physical activity and nutrition) 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 20-25 (6 pages)

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[Purpose] The aim of this review was to discuss the effects of vitamin D on physical performance and musculoskeletal injuries in athletes and provide information on the field applications of vitamin D.
[Methods] A systematic review was conducted to identify studies on vitamin D in athletes that assessed serum vitamin D levels, vitamin D and physical performance, vitamin D and musculoskeletal injuries, and practical guidelines for supplementation of vitamin D.
[Results] Several studies reported that a high proportion of athletes had vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Low serum levels of vitamin D in athletes were more pronounced in winter than in other seasons, and indoor athletes had lower serum vitamin D levels than outdoor athletes. Low vitamin D levels have been demonstrated to have negative effects on muscle strength, power, and endurance; increase stress fractures and other musculoskeletal injuries; and affect acute muscle injuries and inflammation following high-intensity exercises. Therefore, periodic assessment and monitoring of vitamin D levels are necessary in athletes; the recommended serum level of 25(OH)D is > 32 ng/mL and the preferred level is > 40 ng/mL (-1). In those with low levels of vitamin D, exposure to sunlight and an improved diet or supplements may be helpful. Particularly, 2000-6000 IU of supplemental vitamin D3 can be consumed daily.
[Conclusion] Vitamin D is a potential nutritional factor that can significantly affect physical performance and musculoskeletal injuries in athletes. The importance and role of vitamin D in athletes should be emphasized, and the current levels of vitamin D should be assessed. Therefore, it is essential to periodically evaluate and monitor serum vitamin D levels in athletes.

KCI등재

5Body mass index and relative handgrip strength are associated with the prevalence of hypertension in Korean elderly: Korean national fitness assessment in 2019

저자 : Ji Young Kim , Hun-young Park , Jisu Kim , Kiwon Lim

발행기관 : 한국운동영양학회 간행물 : PAN (Physical activity and nutrition) 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 26-32 (7 pages)

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[Purpose] This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of hypertension according to the body mass index (BMI) and relative handgrip strength (RHGS) among elderly individuals in Korea.
[Methods] We analyzed the data of 44,183 Korean elderly individuals over 65 years old (men: n = 15,798, age = 73.31 ± 5.04 years, women: n = 28,385, age = 72.14 ± 5.04 years) obtained from the Korean National Fitness Assessment in 2019. All the participants were categorized into three groups according to the BMI and RHGS; additionally, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression analysis were performed.
[Results] Overweight (men: 1.16 odds ratio [OR] 1.06-1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]; women: 1.15 OR, 1.07-1.23 95% CI) and obese (men: 1.54 OR, 1.42-1.66 95% CI; women: 1.44 OR, 1.36-1.53 95% CI) elderly individuals showed a higher prevalence of hypertension than elderly individuals with normal weight, after controlling for age. In men, a lower RHGS was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension after controlling for age (weak RHGS: 1.09 OR, 1.00-1.17 95% CI; middle RHGS: 1.21 OR, 1.12-1.31 95% CI vs. strong RHGS).
[Conclusion] A higher BMI was associated with the prevalence of hypertension in the elderly Korean population. In addition, a lower RHGS was associated with the prevalence of hypertension in elderly Korean men.

KCI등재

6The effects of royal jelly protein on bone mineral density and strength in ovariectomized female rats

저자 : Satoshi Hattori , Naomi Omi

발행기관 : 한국운동영양학회 간행물 : PAN (Physical activity and nutrition) 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 33-37 (5 pages)

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[Purpose] Sex hormones deficiency leads to dramatically bone loss in particular postmenopausal women. Royal jelly has anti-osteoporosis effect due to maintain bone volume in that condition. We hypothesized that royal jelly protein (RJP, a latent residue after extracting royal jelly) also prevents bone deficient in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats, the animal model of postmenopausal women.
[Methods] Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30, 6 weeks age old) were sham operated (Sham; sham operated group, n = 7), OVX control group (OC, n = 7), OVX with low RJP intake group (ORL, n = 8), and OVX with high RJP intake group (ORH, n = 8) during 8 weeks experimental periods. In the end point of this experiment, the bone samples (lumbar spine, tibia, and femur) were surgically removed under anesthesia. These bone samples were evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength.
[Results] BMD of lumbar spine in RJP intake groups (ORL, ORH) were higher than that in OC group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) in RJP intake volume dependent manner. BMD of tibial proximal metaphysis and diaphysis in RJP intake groups were also higher than these in OC group (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01 / p < 0.05 and p < 0.001). In addition, breaking force of femur in RJP intake groups were significantly increase compared with that in OC group (p < 0.001 respectively).

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