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한국미생물생명공학회> Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology update

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수록정보
32권3호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 15
간행물 제목
32권10호(2022년 10월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1Safety Assessment Systems for Microbial Starters Derived from Fermented Foods

저자 : Sojeong Heo , Tao Kim , Hong-eun Na , Gawon Lee , Jung-hyun Park , Hee-jung Park , Do-won Jeong

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 10호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1219-1225 (7 pages)

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Microorganisms involved in food fermentation not only improve the aroma and taste of the food, but also enhance its preservation. Thus, they are added as starter cultures to boost the final product quality of commercial fermented foods. Although these microorganisms originate from fermented foods and have a long history of consumption, the European Union recently applied the concept of Qualified presumption of Safety (QPS), which is a safety evaluation system for microorganisms used in food or feed in Europe. The QPS system is a species-level safety system and shares results with the European Novel Food System, a strain-level safety evaluation system. In the United States, microorganisms added to fermented foods are considered as food additives or Generally Recognized as Safe substance. In Korea, food microbe lists are presented at the species level. Moreover, the nation has established a strain-oriented evaluation system that applies temporary safety evaluation methods for food raw materials as well as new raw materials. However, when it comes to microorganisms isolated from traditional fermented foods and other fermented food products, there is no definition of the term “species,” and there is a lack of an evaluation system at the species level. Therefore, such an evaluation system for microbial species used in Korean fermented foods is necessary.

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2The Functional Roles of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Different Physiological and Pathological Processes

저자 : Huijuan Gao , Xin Li , Xiatian Chen , Deng Hai , Chuang Wei , Lei Zhang , Peifeng Li

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 10호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1226-1233 (8 pages)

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Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be consumed by humans in amounts sufficient to offer health-promoting effects. Owing to their various biological functions, probiotics are widely used in biological engineering, industry and agriculture, food safety, and the life and health fields. Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus), an important human intestinal probiotic, was originally isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract and its functions have been widely studied ever since it was named in 1900. L. acidophilus has been found to play important roles in many aspects of human health. Due to its good resistance against acid and bile salts, it has broad application prospects in functional, edible probiotic preparations. In this review, we explore the basic characteristics and biological functions of L. acidophilus based on the research progress made thus far worldwide. Various problems to be solved regarding the applications of probiotic products and their future development are also discussed.

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3Propionate Attenuates Growth of Oral Streptococci through Enhancing Methionine Biosynthesis

저자 : Taehwan Park , Jintaek Im , A Reum Kim , Dongwook Lee , Sungho Jeong , Cheol-heui Yun , Seung Hyun Han

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 10호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1234-1244 (11 pages)

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Oral streptococci are considered as an opportunistic pathogen associated with initiation and progression of various oral diseases. However, since the currently-available treatments often accompany adverse effects, alternative strategy is demanded to control streptococci. In the current study, we investigated whether short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including sodium acetate (NaA), sodium propionate (NaP), and sodium butyrate (NaB), can inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. Among the tested SCFAs, NaP most potently inhibited the growth of laboratory and clinically isolated strains of Streptococcus gordonii under anaerobic culture conditions. However, the growth inhibitory effect of NaP on six different species of other oral streptococci was different depending on their culture conditions. Metabolic changes such as alteration of methionine biosynthesis can affect bacterial growth. Indeed, NaP enhanced intracellular methionine levels of oral streptococci as well as the mRNA expression level of methionine biosynthesis-related genes. Collectively, these results suggest that NaP has an inhibitory effect on the growth of oral streptococci, which might be due to alteration of methionine biosynthesis. Thus, NaP can be used an effective bacteriostatic agent for the prevention of oral infectious diseases caused by oral streptococci.

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4Acceleration of Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition (MET) during Direct Reprogramming Using Natural Compounds

저자 : Ji-hye Seo , Si Won Jang , Young-joo Jeon , So Young Eun , Yean Ju Hong , Jeong Tae Do , Jung-il Chae , Hyun Woo Choi

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 10호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1245-1252 (8 pages)

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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated from somatic cells using Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM). Small molecules can enhance reprogramming. Licochalcone D (LCD), a flavonoid compound present mainly in the roots of Glycyrrhiza inflata, acts on known signaling pathways involved in transcriptional activity and signal transduction, including the PGC1-α and MAPK families. In this study, we demonstrated that LCD improved reprogramming efficiency. LCD-treated iPSCs (LCD-iPSCs) expressed pluripotency-related genes Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and Prdm14. Moreover, LCD-iPSCs differentiated into all three germ layers in vitro and formed chimeras. The mesenchymalto- epithelial transition (MET) is critical for somatic cell reprogramming. We found that the expression levels of mesenchymal genes (Snail2 and Twist) decreased and those of epithelial genes (DSP, Cldn3, Crb3, and Ocln) dramatically increased in OR-MEF (OG2+/+/ROSA26+/+) cells treated with LCD for 3 days, indicating that MET effectively occurred in LCD-treated OR-MEF cells. Thus, LCD enhanced the generation of iPSCs from somatic cells by promoting MET at the early stages of reprogramming.

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5Bavachin Suppresses Alpha-Hemolysin Expression and Protects Mice from Pneumonia Infection by Staphylococcus aureus

저자 : Ye Tao , Dazhong Sun , Xinran Ren , Yicheng Zhao , Hengjian Zhang , Tao Jiang , Jiyu Guan , Yong Tang , Wu Song , Shuqiang Li , Li Wang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 10호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1253-1261 (9 pages)

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Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection causes dramatic harm to human health as well as to livestock development. As an important virulence factor, alpha-hemolysin (hla) is critical in the process of S. aureus infection. In this report, we found that bavachin, a natural flavonoid, not only efficiently inhibited the hemolytic activity of hla, but was also capable of inhibiting it on transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, further data revealed that bavachin had no neutralizing activity on hla, which did not affect the formation of hla heptamers and exhibited no effects on the hla thermal stability. In vitro assays showed that bavachin was able to reduce the S. aureus-induced damage of A549 cells. Thus, bavachin repressed the lethality of pneumonia infection, lung bacterial load and lung tissue inflammation in mice, providing potent protection to mice models in vivo. Our results indicated that bavachin has the potential for development as a candidate hla inhibitor against S. aureus.

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6Identification and Validation of Novel Biomarkers and Potential Targeted Drugs in Cholangiocarcinoma: Bioinformatics, Virtual Screening, and Biological Evaluation

저자 : Jiena Wang , Weiwei Zhu , Junxue Tu , Yihui Zheng

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 10호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1262-1274 (13 pages)

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Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a complex and refractor type of cancer with global prevalence. Several barriers remain in CCA diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Therefore, exploring more biomarkers and therapeutic drugs for CCA management is necessary.
CCA gene expression data was downloaded from the TCGA and GEO databases. KEGG enrichment, GO analysis, and protein-protein interaction network were used for hub gene identification. miRNA were predicted using Targetscan and validated according to several GEO databases. The relative RNA and miRNA expression levels and prognostic information were obtained from the GEPIA. The candidate drug was screened using pharmacophore-based virtual screening and validated by molecular modeling and through several in vitro studies.
301 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out. Complement and coagulation cascades-related genes (including AHSG, F2, TTR, and KNG1), and cell cycle-related genes (including CDK1, CCNB1, and KIAA0101) were considered as the hub genes in CCA progression. AHSG, F2, TTR, and KNG1 were found to be significantly decreased and the eight predicted miRNA targeting AHSG, F2, and TTR were increased in CCA patients. CDK1, CCNB1, and KIAA0101 were found to be significantly abundant in CCA patients. In addition, Molport-003-703-800, which is a compound that is derived from pharmacophores-based virtual screening, could directly bind to CDK1 and exhibited anti-tumor activity in cholangiocarcinoma cells. AHSG, F2, TTR, and KNG1 could be novel biomarkers for CCA. Molport-003-703-800 targets CDK1 and work as potential cell cycle inhibitors, thereby having potential for consideration for new chemotherapeutics for CCA.

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7Soil Microbial Communities Associated with Three Arctic Plants in Different Local Environments in Ny-Alesund, Svalbard

저자 : Deokjoo Son , Eun Ju Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 10호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1275-1283 (9 pages)

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Understanding soil microbial community structure in the Arctic is essential for predicting the impact of climate change on interactions between organisms living in polar environments. The hypothesis of the present study was that soil microbial communities and soil chemical characteristics would vary depending on their associated plant species and local environments in Arctic mature soils. We analyzed soil bacterial communities and soil chemical characteristics from soil without vegetation (bare soil) and rhizosphere soil of three Arctic plants (Cassiope tetragona [L.] D. Don, Dryas octopetala L. and Silene acaulis [L.] Jacq.) in different local environments (coal-mined site and seashore-adjacent site). We did not observe any clear differences in microbial community structure in samples belonging to different plant rhizospheres; however, samples from different environmental sites had distinct microbial community structure. The samples from coal-mined site had a relatively higher abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. On the other hand, Acidobacteria was more prevalent in seashore-adjacent samples. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria decreased toward higher soil pH, whereas that of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes was positively correlated with soil pH. Our results suggest that soil bacterial community dissimilarity can be driven by spatial heterogeneity in deglaciated mature soil. Furthermore, these results indicate that soil microbial composition and relative abundance are more affected by soil pH, an abiotic factor, than plant species, a biotic factor.

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8Isovitexin Protects Mice from Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Pneumonia by Targeting Sortase A

저자 : Lili Tian , Xinliang Wu , Hangqian Yu , Fengying Yang , Jian Sun , Tiezhong Zhou , Hong Jiang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 10호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1284-1291 (8 pages)

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The rise of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality, and clinical treatment of MRSA infections has become extremely difficult. Sortase A (SrtA), a virulence determinant that anchors numerous virulence-related proteins to the cell wall, is a prime druggable target against S. aureus infection due to its crucial role in the pathogenicity of S. aureus. Here, we demonstrate that isovitexin, an active ingredient derived from a variety of traditional Chinese medicines, can reversibly inhibit SrtA activity in vitro with a low dose (IC50=24.72 μg/ml). Fluorescence quenching and molecular simulations proved the interaction between isovitexin and SrtA. Subsequent point mutation experiments further confirmed that the critical amino acid positions for SrtA binding to isovitexin were Ala-92, Ile-182, and Trp-197. In addition, isovitexin treatment dramatically reduced S. aureus invasion of A549 cells. This study shows that treatment with isovitexin could alleviate pathological injury and prolong the life span of mice in an S. aureus pneumonia model. According to our research, isovitexin represents a promising lead molecule for the creation of anti-S. aureus medicines or adjuncts.

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9Effects of Long-Term Fertilizer Practices on Rhizosphere Soil Autotrophic CO2-Fixing Bacteria under Double Rice Ecosystem in Southern China

저자 : Haiming Tang , Li Wen , Lihong Shi , Chao Li , Kaikai Cheng , Weiyan Li , Xiaoping Xiao

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 10호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1292-1298 (7 pages)

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Soil autotrophic bacterial communities play a significant role in the soil carbon (C) cycle in paddy fields, but little is known about how rhizosphere soil microorganisms respond to different long-term (35 years) fertilization practices under double rice cropping ecosystems in southern China. Here, we investigated the variation characteristics of rhizosphere soil RubisCO gene cbbL in the double rice ecosystems of in southern China where such fertilization practices are used. For this experiment we set up the following fertilizer regime: without any fertilizer input as a control (CK), inorganic fertilizer (MF), straw returning (RF), and organic and inorganic fertilizer (OM). We found that abundances of cbbL, 16S rRNA genes and RubisCO activity in rhizosphere soil with OM, RF and MF treatments were significantly higher than that of CK treatment. The abundances of cbbL and 16S rRNA genes in rhizosphere soil with OM treatment were 5.46 and 3.64 times higher than that of CK treatment, respectively. Rhizosphere soil RubisCO activity with OM and RF treatments increased by 50.56 and 45.22%, compared to CK treatment. Shannon and Chao1 indices for rhizosphere soil cbbL libraries with RF and OM treatments increased by 44.28, 28.56, 29.60, and 23.13% compared to CK treatment. Rhizosphere soil cbbL sequences with MF, RF and OM treatments mainly belonged to Variovorax paradoxus, uncultured proteobacterium, Ralstonia pickettii, Thermononospora curvata, and Azoarcus sp.KH33C. Meanwhile, cbbL-carrying bacterial composition was obviously influenced by soil bulk density, rhizosphere soil dissolved organic C, soil organic C, and microbial biomass C contents. Fertilizer practices were the principal factor influencing rhizosphere soil cbbL-carrying bacterial communities. These results showed that rhizosphere soil autotrophic bacterial communities were significantly changed under conditions of different long-term fertilization practices Therefore, increasing rhizosphere soil autotrophic bacteria community with crop residue and organic manure practices was found to be beneficial for management of double rice ecosystems in southern China.

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10Hygrolansamycins A-D, O-Heterocyclic Macrolides from Streptomyces sp. KCB17JA11

저자 : Jun-pil Jang , Byeongsan Lee , Kyung Taek Heo , Tae Hoon Oh , Hyeok-won Lee , Sung-kyun Ko , Bang Yeon Hwang , Jae-hyuk Jang , Young-soo Hong

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 10호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1299-1306 (8 pages)

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Six ansamycin derivatives were isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. KCB17JA11, including four new hygrolansamycins A-D (1-4) and known congeners divergolide O (5) and hygrocin C (6). Compounds 1-5 featured an unusual six-membered O-heterocyclic moiety. The isolation workflow was guided by a Molecular Networking-based dereplication strategy. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated using NMR and HRESIMS experiments, and the absolute configuration was established by the Mosher's method. Compound 2 exhibited mild cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 24.60 ± 3.37 μM to 49.93 ± 4.52 μM.

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1Strategies to Mitigate Enteric Methane Emissions from Ruminant Animals

저자 : Tenzin Tseten , Rey Anthony Sanjorjo , Moonhyuk Kwon , Seon-won Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 269-277 (9 pages)

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Human activities account for approximately two-thirds of global methane emissions, wherein the livestock sector is the single massive methane emitter. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas of over 21 times the warming effect of carbon dioxide. In the rumen, methanogens produce methane as a by-product of anaerobic fermentation. Methane released from ruminants is considered as a loss of feed energy that could otherwise be used for productivity. Economic progress and growing population will inflate meat and milk product demands, causing elevated methane emissions from this sector. In this review, diverse approaches from feed manipulation to the supplementation of organic and inorganic feed additives and direct-fed microbial in mitigating enteric methane emissions from ruminant livestock are summarized. These approaches directly or indirectly alter the rumen microbial structure thereby reducing rumen methanogenesis. Though many inorganic feed additives have remarkably reduced methane emissions from ruminants, their usage as feed additives remains unappealing because of health and safety concerns. Hence, feed additives sourced from biological materials such as direct-fed microbials have emerged as a promising technique in mitigating enteric methane emissions.

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2An Engineered Outer Membrane-Defective Escherichia coli Secreting Protective Antigens against Streptococcus suis via the Twin-Arginine Translocation Pathway as a Vaccine

저자 : Wenyu Li , Fan Yin , Zixuan Bu , Yuying Liu , Yongqing Zhang , Xiabing Chen , Shaowen Li , Lu Li , Rui Zhou , Qi Huang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 278-286 (9 pages)

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Live bacterial vector vaccines are one of the most promising vaccine types and have the advantages of low cost, flexibility, and good safety. Meanwhile, protein secretion systems have been reported as useful tools to facilitate the release of heterologous antigen proteins from bacterial vectors. The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system is an important protein export system that transports fully folded proteins in a signal peptide-dependent manner. In this study, we constructed a live vector vaccine using an engineered commensal Escherichia coli strain in which amiA and amiC genes were deleted, resulting in a leaky outer membrane that allows the release of periplasmic proteins to the extracellular environment. The protective antigen proteins SLY, enolase, and Sbp against Streptococcus suis were targeted to the Tat pathway by fusing a Tat signal peptide. Our results showed that by exploiting the Tat pathway and the outer membrane-defective E. coli strain, the antigen proteins were successfully secreted. The strains secreting the antigen proteins were used to vaccinate mice. After S. suis challenge, the vaccinated group showed significantly higher survival and milder clinical symptoms compared with the vector group. Further analysis showed that the mice in the vaccinated group had lower burdens of bacteria load and slighter pathological changes. Our study reports a novel live bacterial vector vaccine that uses the Tat system and provides a new alternative for developing S. suis vaccine.

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3Electron Transfer to Hydroxylase through Component Interactions in Soluble Methane Monooxygenase

저자 : Chaemin Lee , Yunha Hwang , Hyun Goo Kang , Seung Jae Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 287-293 (7 pages)

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The hydroxylation of methane (CH4) is crucial to the field of environmental microbiology, owing to the heat capacity of methane, which is much higher than that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO), a member of the bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase (BMM) superfamily, is essential for the hydroxylation of specific substrates, including hydroxylase (MMOH), regulatory component (MMOB), and reductase (MMOR). The diiron active site positioned in the MMOH α-subunit is reduced through the interaction of MMOR in the catalytic cycle. The electron transfer pathway, however, is not yet fully understood due to the absence of complex structures with reductases. A type II methanotroph, Methylosinus sporium 5, successfully expressed sMMO and hydroxylase, which were purified for the study of the mechanisms. Studies on the MMOH-MMOB interaction have demonstrated that Tyr76 and Trp78 induce hydrophobic interactions through π-π stacking. Structural analysis and sequencing of the ferredoxin domain in MMOR (MMOR-Fd) suggested that Tyr93 and Tyr95 could be key residues for electron transfer. Mutational studies of these residues have shown that the concentrations of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and iron ions are changed. The measurements of dissociation constants (Kds) between hydroxylase and mutated reductases confirmed that the binding affinities were not significantly changed, although the specific enzyme activities were significantly reduced by MMOR-Y93A. This result shows that Tyr93 could be a crucial residue for the electron transfer route at the interface between hydroxylase and reductase.

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4Appropriate Soil Heat Treatment Promotes Growth and Disease Suppression of Panax notoginseng by Interfering with the Bacterial Community

저자 : Ying-bin Li , Zhi-ping Zhang , Ye Yuan , Hui-chuan Huang , Xin-yue Mei , Fen Du , Min Yang , Yi-xiang Liu , Shu-sheng Zhu

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 294-301 (8 pages)

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In our greenhouse experiment, soil heat treatment groups (50, 80, and 121°C) significantly promoted growth and disease suppression of Panax notoginseng in consecutively cultivated soil (CCS) samples (p < 0.01), and 80°C worked better than 50°C and 121°C (p < 0.01). Furthermore, we found that heat treatment at 80°C changes the microbial diversity in CCS, and the inhibition ratios of culturable microorganisms, such as fungi and actinomycetes, were nearly 100%. However, the heat-tolerant bacterial community was preserved. The 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing analyses indicated that the soil heat treatment had a greater effect on the Chao1 index and Shannon's diversity index of bacteria than fungi, and the relative abundances of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were significantly higher than without heating (80 and 121°C, p < 0.05). Soil probiotic bacteria, such as Bacillus (67%), Sporosarcina (9%), Paenibacillus (6%), Paenisporosarcina (6%), and Cohnella (4%), remained in the soil after the 80°C and 121°C heat treatments. Although steam increased the relative abundances of most of the heat-tolerant microbes before sowing, richness and diversity gradually recovered to the level of CCS, regardless of fungi or bacteria, after replanting. Thus, we added heat-tolerant microbes (such as Bacillus) after steaming, which reduced the relative abundance of pathogens, recruited antagonistic bacteria, and provided a long-term protective effect compared to the steaming and Bacillus alone (p < 0.05). Taken together, the current study provides novel insight into sustainable agriculture in a consecutively cultivated system.

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5RK-270D and E, Oxindole Derivatives from Streptomyces sp. with Anti-Angiogenic Activity

저자 : Jun-pil Jang , Mina Jang , Toshihiko Nogawa , Shunji Takahashi , Hiroyuki Osada , Jong Seog Ahn , Sung-kyun Ko , Jae-hyuk Jang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 302-306 (5 pages)

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A chemical investigation of a culture extract from Streptomyces sp. RK85-270 led to the isolation and characterization of two new oxindoles, RK-270D (1) and E (2). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by analyzing spectroscopic and spectrometric data from 1D and 2D NMR and High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) experiments. Compound 1 exhibited anti-angiogenic activities against human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) without cytotoxicity. Results of Western blot analysis revealed that 1 inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in the HUVECs via VEGFR2/ p38 MAPK-mediated pathway.

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6Functional Characterization of khadi Yeasts Isolates for Selection of Starter Cultures

저자 : Koketso Motlhanka , Kebaneilwe Lebani , Mar Garcia-aloy , Nerve Zhou

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 307-316 (10 pages)

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Yeasts play an important role in spontaneous fermentation of traditional alcoholic beverages. Our previous study revealed that a mixed-consortia of both Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts were responsible for fermentation of khadi, a popular, non-standardized traditional beverage with an immense potential for commercialization in Botswana. Functional characterization of isolated fermenting yeasts from mixed consortia is an indispensable step towards the selection of potential starter cultures for commercialization of khadi. In this study, we report the characterization of 13 khadi isolates for the presence of brewing-relevant phenotypes such as their fermentative capacity, ability to utilize a range of carbon sources and their ability to withstand brewing-associated stresses, as a principal step towards selection of starter cultures. Khadi isolates such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida ethanolica showed good brewing credentials but Lachancea fermentati emerged as the isolate with the best brewing attributes with a potential as a starter culture. However, we were then prompted to investigate the potential of L. fermentati to influence the fruity aromatic flavor, characteristic of khadi. The aroma components of 18 khadi samples were extracted using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and identified using a GC-MS. We detected esters as the majority of volatile compounds in khadi, typical of the aromatic signature of both khadi and L. fermentati associated fermentations. This work shows that L. fermentati has potential for commercial production of khadi.

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7Comparison of Liquid and Solid-State Fermentation Processes for the Production of Enzymes and Beta-Glucan from Hulled Barley

저자 : Se Yeon Lee , Chae Hun Ra

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 317-323 (7 pages)

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Solid-state fermentation using hulled barley was carried out to produce enzymes and β-glucan. The one-factor-at-a-time experiments were carried out to determine the optimal composition of the basal medium. The modified synthetic medium composition in liquid-state fermentation was determined to be 70 g/l hulled barley, 0 g/l rice bran, 5 g/l soytone, and 6 g/l ascorbic acid. Optimal pretreatment conditions of hulled barley by solid-state fermentation were evaluated in terms of maximum production of fungal biomass, amylase, protease, and β-glucan, which were 1.26 mg/g, 31310.34 U/g, 2614.95 U/g, and 14.6% (w/w), respectively, at 60 min of pretreatment condition. Thus, the solid-state fermentation process was found to enhance the overall fermentation yields of hulled barley to produce high amounts of enzymes and β-glucan.

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8Heat-Killed Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LRCC5314 Mitigates the Effects of Stress-Related Type 2 Diabetes in Mice via Gut Microbiome Modulation

저자 : Yohan Nam , Seokmin Yoon , Jihye Baek , Jong-hwa Kim , Miri Park , Kwangwoo Hwang , Wonyong Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 324-332 (9 pages)

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The incidence of stress-related type 2 diabetes (stress-T2D), which is aggravated by physiological stress, is increasing annually. The effects of Lactobacillus, a key component of probiotics, have been widely studied in diabetes; however, studies on the effects of postbiotics are still limited. Here, we aimed to examine the mechanism through which heat-killed Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LRCC5314 (HK-LRCC5314) alleviates stress-T2D in a cold-induced stress-T2D C57BL/6 mouse model. HK-LRCC5314 markedly decreased body weight gain, adipose tissue (neck, subcutaneous, and epididymal) weight, and fasting glucose levels. In the adipose tissue, mRNA expression levels of stress-T2D associated factors (NPY, Y2R, GLUT4, adiponectin, and leptin) and pro-inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, and CCL-2) were also altered. Furthermore, HK-LRCC5314 increased the abundance of Barnesiella, Alistipes, and butyrate-producing bacteria, including Akkermansia, in feces and decreased the abundance of Ruminococcus, Dorea, and Clostridium. Thus, these findings suggest that HK-LRCC5314 exerts protective effects against stress-T2D via gut microbiome modulation, suggesting its potential as a supplement for managing stress-T2D.

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9Characterization of Prophages in Leuconostoc Derived from Kimchi and Genomic Analysis of the Induced Prophage in Leuconostoc lactis

저자 : Song-hee Kim , Jong-hyun Park

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 333-340 (8 pages)

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Leuconostoc has been used as a principal starter in natural kimchi fermentation, but limited research has been conducted on its phages. In this study, prophage distribution and characterization in kimchi-derived Leuconostoc strains were investigated, and phage induction was performed. Except for one strain, 16 Leuconostoc strains had at least one prophage region with questionable and incomplete regions, which comprised 0.5-6.0% of the bacterial genome. Based on major capsid protein analysis, ten intact prophages and an induced incomplete prophage of Leu. lactis CBA3626 belonged to the Siphoviridae family and were similar to Lc-Nu-like, sha1-like, phiMH1-like, and TPA_asm groups. Bacterial immunology genes, such as superinfection exclusion proteins and methylase, were found on several prophages. One prophage of Leu. lactis CBA3626 was induced using mitomycin C and was confirmed as belonging to the Siphoviridae family. Homology of the induced prophage with 21 reported prophages was not high (< 4%), and 47% identity was confirmed only with TPA_asm from Siphoviridae sp. isolate ct3pk4. Therefore, it is suggested that Leuconostoc from kimchi had diverse prophages with less than 6% genome proportion and some immunological genes. Interestingly, the induced prophage was very different from the reported prophages of other Leuconostoc species.

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10Bacterial Community of Galchi-Baechu Kimchi Based on Culture-Dependent and - Independent Investigation and Selection of Starter Candidates

저자 : Tao Kim , Sojeong Heo , Hong-eun Na , Gawon Lee , Jong-hoon Kim , Mi-sun Kwak , Moon-hee Sung , Do-won Jeong

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 341-347 (7 pages)

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In this study, the bacterial community of galchi-baechu kimchi was determined using culture-based and culture-independent techniques (next generation sequencing:NGS), and showed discrepancies between results. Weissella koreensis and Pediococcus inopinatus were the dominant species according to the NGS results, while Bacillus species and P. inopinatus were dominant in the culture-dependent analysis. To identify safe starter candidates, sixty-five Bacillus strains isolated from galchi-baechu kimchi using culture-dependent methods were evaluated for their antibiotic resistance, presence of toxin genes, and hemolytic activity. Strains were then assessed for salt tolerance and protease and lipase activity. As a result, four strains-B. safensis GN5_10, B. subtilis GN5_19, B. velezensis GN5_25, and B. velezensis GT8-were selected as safe starter candidates for use in fermented foods.

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